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99. Stabiae, Villa San Marco.

Excavated 1749 to 1754, 1950s, 2011. Restored 2011 to 2012.

 

Part:    1       1a       1b       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9      10     11     12     13     14     15     16     17     18     19     20     21     22     23     Plan

 

The Villa San Marco, with its surface area of 11,000 square meters, is among the largest Roman residential villas in the Vesuvian area and is located on the Hill of Varano in a splendid panoramic position.

 

First excavated in 1749 – 1754, it was further excavated in the 1950s by Libero d’Orsi, in co-operation with the Soprintendenza.

Stratigraphic excavation 2011 in the northern section of the Villa. See http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2012-259.pdf

Most of the structure was shaken during the November 1980 earthquake, and the peristyle of the villa was severely damaged.

Further restoration and protection took place in 2011 to 2012, covering and protecting the atrium, the kitchen, the frigidarium, the corridors, the upper and lower peristyle, the environments surrounding the oecus, restoring it to its state as before the 1980 earthquake.

The completion of restoration works has also allowed resumption of access through the main entrance built in the 1950s at Villa San Marco.

For a detailed study of the villa,

See Barbet A., Miniero P., (a cura di), 1999. La Villa San Marco a Stabia. Napoli, Roma e Pompei: Centre Jean Bérard; École Française de Rome; and SAP.

 

According to the information description card, entitled “The first discoveries” –

“The Stabiae excavations were started by the express will of King Charles of Bourbon on 7th June 1749, under the direction of the Spanish engineer Roque Joachin de Alcubierre, assisted as of the following year by the Swiss Carl Weber, a colonel of the Royal Corps of Engineers.

First to be explored, between 1750 and 1754, were Villa San Marco and the area of the city spread, then Villa del Pastore, and from 1757 onwards, Villa Arianna and Villa Arianna “Second Complex”. Excavations aimed, in those times, at the recovery of frescoes and the best-preserved furnishings, which were preliminary gathered in the Portici Royal Palace and then in the Naples National Archaeological Museum.

All the excavated or surveyed structures, though, were accurately measured, drafted and described prior to their re-burial.”

 

We first photographed the villa on a cold, wet and dark December 2006 afternoon, in the midst of a storm.

Our visit to the villa, in its elevated position, with the thunder and lightning flashing all around and on Vesuvius and other mountains was a thought-provoking experience. We apologise for the quality of some of these photographs.

 

We greatly appreciate the photographs from the Jashemski Archives, Klaus Heese, Buzz Ferebee, Michael Binns and Nando Calabrese which enable us to give a more complete record.

 

 

You will note from the plans below that, technically, North would point to the Baths area, and the area looking out from the tablinum would be North/North-east. Rather than having descriptions of rooms, i. e. “the north-west corner of room on north-east side”, we have adopted Vesuvius as being to the North, therefore the area that the descriptive leaflet describes as the “Peristyle, north of the tablinum”, we have described as “Peristyle, east of the tablinum”. If this is really important to you, check carefully.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae. Excavation plan. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
Jmit0139

Villa San Marco, Stabiae. Excavation plan. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

Jmit0139

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae. Earlier excavation plan. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
Jmit0131

Villa San Marco, Stabiae. Earlier excavation plan. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

Jmit0131

 

Portico on east side

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Looking north. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
According to the descriptive information card –
“The latest archaeological researches have brought to light some of the northern (we describe as eastern) structures next to the atrium of Villa San Marco.
These structures have been partially known by the drawings made during the Bourbon excavations. 
It is a sort of a trapezoidal peristyle directly linked to the tablinum of the villa. 
The inner part of the peristyle was arranged as a garden with a large central tree.
On the north wing (we say east side) a monumental entrance, distinguished by two side semi-columns, is widely opened to the public way. 
On the left it is possible to see a small room made by hurdle, probably used by the slave who served as doorkeeper.
On the west side (we describe as north side) two triangular rooms used as lavatories have been dug, in which several graffiti have been found.
Along the eastern front (we describe as the south side), there are a series of rooms, probably used as servants’ quarters or as food storage, while in the north-west wing (we describe as the north-east corner) a brick staircase was used to connect the ground floor with the first floor of the house.”
According to Keppie, this is a peristyle garden which would have been on the east of the atrium and tablinum.
Some elements originally exposed in the eighteenth century are being gradually opened up again.
See Keppie, L. (2009). The Romans on the Bay of Naples: an archaeological guide. The History Press, Stroud, Glos. (p. 148-9).
See Terpstra T, The 2011 Field season preliminary Report at http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2012-259.pdf

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Looking towards west portico of peristyle area. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to the descriptive information card –

“The latest archaeological researches have brought to light some of the northern structures next to the atrium of Villa San Marco.

These structures have been partially known by the drawings made during the Bourbon excavations.

It is a sort of a trapezoidal peristyle directly linked to the tablinum of the villa.

The inner part of the peristyle was arranged as a garden with a large central tree.

On the north wing a monumental entrance, distinguished by two side semi-columns, is widely opened to the public way.

On the left it is possible to see a small room made by hurdle, probably used by the slave who served as doorkeeper.

On the west side two triangular rooms used as lavatories have been dug, in which several graffiti have been found.

Along the eastern front, there are a series of rooms, probably used as servants’ quarters or as food storage, while in the north-west wing a brick staircase was used to connect the ground floor with the first floor of the house.”

According to Keppie, this is a peristyle garden which would have been on the east of the atrium and tablinum.

Some elements originally exposed in the eighteenth century are being gradually opened up again.

See Keppie, L. (2009). The Romans on the Bay of Naples: an archaeological guide. The History Press, Stroud, Glos. (p. 148-9).

See Terpstra T, The 2011 Field season preliminary Report at http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2012-259.pdf

 

Villa San Marco, April 2018. Looking north-west across porticoed courtyard area. Photo courtesy of Ian Lycett-King.

Villa San Marco, April 2018. Looking north-east across porticoed courtyard area. Photo courtesy of Ian Lycett-King.

Use is subject to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License v.4 International.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
According to Terpstra et al, this is one of three triangular shaped rooms, the largest two both being latrines. 
This, the smallest and most southerly, had its walls and floor lined with hydraulic plaster. 
It seems to have served as a cistern, although it has one window, which was possibly a later architectural addition. 
See Terpstra T, The 2011 Field season preliminary Report at http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2012-259.pdf

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to Terpstra et al, this is one of three triangular shaped rooms, the largest two both being latrines.

This, the smallest and most westerly, had its walls and floor lined with hydraulic plaster.

It seems to have served as a cistern, although it has one window, which was possibly a later architectural addition.

See Terpstra T, The 2011 Field season preliminary Report at http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2012-259.pdf

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. 
Looking from the smallest and most westerly of the three rooms on the north side of the peristyle garden, towards portico on east side of Villa.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015.

Looking from the smallest and most westerly of the three rooms on the north side of the peristyle garden, towards portico on east side of Villa.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, small room on north side of front portico.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, into a small room on north side of portico.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, looking towards remaining plaster on wall of small room.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, looking towards remaining plaster on wall of small room.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, looking out towards front portico and peristyle on east side of Villa.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. From room 48, through the small room, looking out towards portico and peristyle on east side of Villa.

 

Castellammare di Stabia, Villa San Marco, July 2010. Looking north-east along south side. The small rooms along this side, are still incompletely excavated, and still filled almost entirely with lapilli. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns. It is thought that the main entrance from the street which is still buried, originally gave onto this courtyard with a portico. The entrance would be in the centre of the photo, at the east end. This courtyard would have led to the tablinum and atrium, from its western end.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Looking north-east across long south exterior side.

The small rooms along this side, are still incompletely excavated, and still filled almost entirely with lapilli. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

It is thought that the main entrance from the street which is still buried, originally gave onto this courtyard with a portico.

The entrance would be in the centre of the photo, at the east end.

This peristyle/courtyard would have led to the tablinum and atrium, from its western end.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Looking north along east side towards unexcavated area. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Looking east along south side towards unexcavated area. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking east from tablinum towards peristyle area. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking east from tablinum towards peristyle area. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020. Looking north-east from tablinum along the side of outer structure with rooms around the peristyle.
Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020.

Looking east from tablinum along the side of outer structure with rooms around the peristyle. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. 
Looking north-east from tablinum towards rooms, possibly for the slaves, around the peristyle area. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019.

Looking east from tablinum towards rooms, possibly for the slaves, around the peristyle area. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking north towards east end. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards east end. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking north across peristyle. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking across peristyle. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking east from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking east from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019.
Looking from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa at its north end.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.
According to the description on the information card –
“The inner part of the peristyle was arranged as a garden with a large central tree, as we can see from the discovery of empty spaces in the roots from which a mould has been made.”

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019.

Looking from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa at its east end. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

According to the description on the information card –

The inner part of the peristyle was arranged as a garden with a large central tree, as we can see from the discovery of empty spaces in the roots from which a mould has been made.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking east from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking east from tablinum across a peristyle towards the main gateway of the Villa.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking north from tablinum towards the main gateway to the Villa.
According to the information card – 
“at the side of the main doorway (right on photo) is a small room made of hurdle, which was possibly used by a slave who served as the doorkeeper.”

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking east from tablinum towards the main gateway to the Villa.

According to the information card –

“at the side of the main doorway (right on photo) is a small room made of hurdle, (opus craticium), which was possibly used by a slave who served as the doorkeeper.”

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020. Looking towards the rooms on the north-west side of the peristyle. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020. Looking towards the rooms on the north-east side of the peristyle. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards the rooms on the north-west side of the peristyle.  
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards the rooms on the north-east side of the peristyle. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. 
Looking from tablinum along the west side of outer structure with rooms around the peristyle area.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Looking from tablinum along the north side of outer structure with rooms around the peristyle area.

 

Room 56, Entrance and vestibule

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking north across carpark towards entrance. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking north across carpark towards entrance. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Pathway to Villa entrance at side of building at north side of car-park.
Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Pathway to Villa entrance at side of building at north side of carpark. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020. Steps down to entrance. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, October 2020. Steps down to entrance in the year of the pandemic. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Steps down to entrance with Vesuvius towering over roofline. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Steps down to entrance with Vesuvius towering over roofline. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, April 2018. Looking north towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Ian Lycett-King. Use is subject to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License v.4 International.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, April 2018. Looking north towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Ian Lycett-King.

Use is subject to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License v.4 International.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards west wall, near entrance doorway.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards west wall, near entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards north wall, on west side of entrance doorway.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Looking towards north wall, on west side of entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Reproduction graffito from Bourbon times. Original in Antiquarium di Stabia.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.
This is mentioned in GdS of 11/3/1957 “(graffito) lungo m.0.18 su due righe: (Graffito, 0.18m long, on two lines):
Sia benedeta la macolata congezione
Del beato vergine maria.”
See Barbet A. (a cura di), 1999. La Villa San Marco di Stabia: Illustrazioni 1. Roma, L’Erma di Bretschneider. (p.354).

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Reproduction graffito from Bourbon times. Original in Antiquarium di Stabia. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

This is mentioned in GdS of 11/3/1957 - (graffito) lungo m.0.18 su due righe: (Graffito, 0.18m long, on two lines):

Sia benedeta la macolata congezione

Del beato vergine maria.

See Barbet A. (a cura di), 1999. La Villa San Marco di Stabia: Illustrazioni 1. Roma, L’Erma di Bretschneider. (p.354).

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019.  Looking towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019.  Information card in Italian and English. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Information card in Italian and English. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Entrance doorway.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Entrance doorway.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Bench on west side of entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Bench on west side of entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Bench on east side of entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Bench on east side of entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019.  Looking through entrance doorway towards vestibule and atrium. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2019. Looking through entrance doorway towards vestibule and atrium. Photo courtesy of Klaus Heese.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Entrance doorway, threshold.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, September 2015. Entrance doorway, threshold.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Entrance doorway, threshold. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, June 2019. Entrance doorway, threshold. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Entrance doorway. Doorway into vestibule 56, and atrium room 44.

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, July 2010. Entrance doorway. Doorway into vestibule 56, and atrium room 44.

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, 1968. Entrance doorway. Doorway into vestibule 56, and atrium room 44. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1917

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, 1968.

Entrance doorway. Doorway into vestibule 56, and atrium room 44. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1917

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, c.1960’s (probably 1968). Entrance doorway.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. Jmit0138

 

Villa San Marco, Stabiae, c.1960’s (probably 1968). Entrance doorway. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

Jmit0138

 

 

Part:    1       1a       1b       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9      10     11     12     13     14     15     16     17     18     19     20     21     22     23     Plan

 

 

 

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Le immagini fotografiche a bassa risoluzione pubblicate su questo web site sono copyright © di Jackie e Bob Dunn E NON POSSONO ESSERE UTILIZZATE, IN ALCUNA CIRCOSTANZA, PER GUADAGNO O RICOMPENSA COMMERCIALMENTE. Su concessione del Ministero della Cultura - Parco Archeologico di Pompei. Si comunica che nessun riproduzione o duplicazione può considerarsi legittimo senza l'autorizzazione scritta del Parco Archeologico di Pompei.

Ultimo aggiornamento - Last updated: 04-Sep-2021 22:15